In order to get electricity, you need to find the potential difference and the conductor. By combining everything into a single stream, you can provide yourself with a constant source of electricity. However, in reality, taming a potential difference is not so simple.
Nature conducts electricity of enormous power through a liquid medium. These are lightning strikes, which, as you know, arise in air saturated with moisture. However, these are just single discharges, and not a constant flow of electricity.
Man took on the function of natural power and organized the movement of electricity through wires. However, this is just a transfer of one form of energy into another. Extraction of electricity directly from the environment remains mainly at the level of scientific research, experiments from the category of entertaining physics and the creation of small installations of low power.
The easiest way is to extract electricity from a solid and humid environment.
The unity of the three environments
The most popular medium in this case is soil. The fact is that the earth is a unity of three media: solid, liquid and gaseous. Small particles of minerals contain honey droplets of water and air bubbles. Moreover, an elementary unit of soil — a micelle or clay – humus complex — is a complex system with a potential difference.
A negative charge is formed on the outer shell of such a system, and a positive charge on the inner. The positively charged ions in the medium are attracted to the negatively charged micelle shell. So, electrical and electrochemical processes constantly occur in the soil. In a more homogeneous air and water environment, there are no such conditions for the concentration of electricity.
How to get electricity from the earth
Since there is electricity and electrolytes in the soil, it can be considered not only as an environment for living organisms and a source of harvest, but also as a mini power plant. In addition, our electrified dwellings concentrate in the environment around themselves and the electricity that "flows" through grounding. This can not be used.
Most often, homeowners use the following methods to extract electricity from the soil located around the house.
Method 1 - Zero wire -> load -> soil
Voltage is supplied to residential premises through 2 conductors: phase and zero. When creating a third, grounded conductor, a voltage from 10 to 20 V appears between it and the zero contact. This voltage is enough to light a couple of bulbs.
Thus, to connect consumers of electricity to "earth" electricity, it is enough to create a circuit: zero wire - load - soil. Craftsmen can improve this primitive circuit and get a higher voltage current.
Method 2 - Zinc and Copper Electrode
The next method of generating electricity is based on the use of land only. Two metal rods are taken - one zinc, the other copper, and placed in the ground. It is better if it is soil in an isolated space.
Isolation is necessary in order to create an environment with increased salinity, which is incompatible with life - nothing will grow in such soil. The rods will create a potential difference, and the soil will become an electrolyte.
In the simplest version, we get a voltage of 3 V. This, of course, is not enough for the house, but the system can be complicated, thereby increasing the power.
Getting electricity from the wind
Power Generation Design
Wind is the most common source of energy.. We warn in advance that it is not very easy to build equipment for generating electricity with your own hands, but the result of the device will not be long in coming. During development, a person will need to understand the structure of factory technology and learn how to assemble it yourself. The main components of the installation are:
- DC generator
- battery charge controller
- voltage transformer
There are two types of wind turbines: vertical and horizontal. Their difference lies in the order of the axis. Do-it-yourself vertical alternative energy source for your home is a little easier than horizontal. In practice, each device has its own advantages. The efficiency of vertical-axis equipment does not exceed 15%. Due to the low noise level, their operation at home does not cause discomfort. The amount of electricity produced depends on the strength of the wind, so the owner will not have to rack his brains in case of a change in the direction of the air flow.
Free energy for the home, obtained using the horizontal axis, is the exact opposite of the vertical type. The equipment is characterized by high efficiency indicators, but needs to install sensors that respond to a change in wind direction. The disadvantage of a horizontal wind turbine is its high noise level. This option is more suitable for use in an industrial environment.
To get alternative electricity in large quantities, you need to correctly select the number of blades and the size of the propeller. Home-made work out a schematic diagram of the collection of the device. It all depends on what kind of results the owner wants to get. With a propeller diameter of 2 meters, the following number of blades must be installed:
- 10 watts - 2 pieces,
- 15 watts - 3 pieces,
- 20 watts - 4 pieces,
- 30 watts - 6 pieces
- 40 watts - 8 pieces.
For a propeller diameter of 4 meters, the following characteristics apply:
- 40 watts - 2 blades,
- 60 watts - 3 blades,
- 80 watts - 4 blades,
- 120 watts - 6 blades.
Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that alternative electricity will help in heating the room. It remains only to find out the power of the electric boiler and calculate the desired size of the propeller. In the calculation, the wind speed equal to four meters per second was taken. In Eastern Europe, this figure is average.
The blade is an important component of the wind generator
Making alternative energy sources for the home with your own hands, special attention should be paid to the blades. Sailing devices that are installed on old mills are not effective because they have low efficiency. It is advisable to use aerodynamic devices that mimic the appearance of the wings of an airplane. By and large, the material does not matter, the blades can even be cut out of wood. If you decide to use traditional plastic, then remember that with a small number of blades in the installation, vibrations will occur. Therefore, it is desirable to place 6 blades with a diameter of 3 meters in a device that will help to obtain alternative forms of energy. It is best to use a PVC pipe designed for pressurized water supply. To obtain aerodynamic properties, the edges of the product need to grind and grind. To assemble the propeller, you need a "star", which is made from the horizontal.
To get electricity with your own hands qualitatively, it is necessary to balance the wind wheels. This can be done at home, during the test work, the blades are checked for arbitrary movement. If the propeller is in a static position, then the vibrations are not afraid of him.
It is impossible to generate alternative energy with your own hands using wind without factory equipment. In any case, you need a DC motor, which costs a penny in comparison with the price of factory wind turbines. Further, the equipment is manufactured according to the following scenario:
- frame assembly for structural reliability,
- installation of a rotary assembly, to which the generator and the wind wheel will be fixed,
- installation of a movable side shovel with a spring coupler (necessary to protect the device during a hurricane wind). If this mechanism does not exist, then the made generator of electricity with its own hands will be turned in the direction of the wind,
- we attach the propeller to the generator, which in turn is mounted on the bed, and the bed to the frame,
- a spade is attached to the frame with a stretch,
- the swivel mechanism is connected to the frame,
- fix the generator to the current collector, from which the wires going into the electrical part come from.
To assemble the electrical part, you need to have basic knowledge in physics. We connect a diode bridge to the battery through which the voltage controller and fuses go. The battery distributes alternative electricity for the home.
Plates for generating electricity using the sun
More recently, humanity has learned to receive free energy for the home with the help of the Sun. The resulting resource is used to heat the room and provide it with electricity, and you can also combine two processes. The advantages of solar energy include the following factors:
- resource eternity
- high level of environmental friendliness,
- the possibility of processing into other alternative forms of energy.
If there is no possibility or desire to buy ready-made solar panels, then the device can be constructed independently. We offer you a simple installation so that you can actually verify its effectiveness, and then make several such devices and create an entire thermal station for the home.
Copper plate before assembling the solar panel
So, an alternative current source can be made from a simple sheet of copper, for simple equipment we need about 45 square centimeters. First you need to cut a piece of metal to the size we need. Orient yourself so that the sheet fits on the spirals of the electric stove. Before starting the procedure, it is important to remove excess elements from copper and eliminate defects. Then you can put the sheet on a hotplate, which should have a capacity of at least 1100 watts.
In the process of heating, the material will change its color several times, which is due to the peculiarities of the laws of physics and chemistry. After the copper is black, spot half an hour. After this time, the oxide layer will become thick. When making a solar alternative source of energy for the house with your own hands, after turning off the tiles, wait a while until the copper cools down. Cooling is needed to ensure that the oxide exfoliates from copper. When the leaf temperature of the sheet is equal to room temperature, it is necessary to rinse the material under warm water. And in no case should the residues of copper oxide be separated. A description of the assembly technology of the device will prove to you that it is very easy to get alternative electricity without much effort.
First, we cut out another sheet of copper, which will correspond to the size of the processed piece. We bend both sheets and put them inside a plastic bottle, and we do it in such a way that they do not touch each other. We attach crocodile clips to the two plates. Now all that remains is to connect the wires to the poles: the plus cable is from "pure" copper, and the minus cable from processed on the tile.
Compact solar battery low power
A device for generating electricity with your own hands is almost ready. At the final stage, it remains in a separate vessel to mix 3 tablespoons of salt with plain water. We mix the mixture for several minutes so that the salt is completely dissolved in the liquid, after which the resulting solution is poured into a plastic bottle. If you construct several such devices at once, you can get good and free alternative energy sources, made with your own hands in a short period of time. Do not come up with a simpler home-made option for heating a room.
Generation of electricity from the bowels of the earth
Heat pump communications
To obtain electric or thermal energy from the bowels of the earth, it is necessary to build a geothermal heat pump. This device is universal, it is capable of extracting the product we need both from the soil and from groundwater. Recently, such an alternative form of energy is very popular.
To get electricity from the earth, first you need to lay a pipeline. If energy will come from water, then we place the heat pump in a reservoir. According to the principle of operation, the heat pump is no different from the refrigerator. The only difference is that in our case, the heat is not discharged into the environment, but is absorbed from there.
Do-it-yourself alternative sources of electricity are of four types:
- Vertical collector. It is installed in drilled wells, the depth of each of which can be up to 150 meters. This technique is relevant when the area of the site does not allow the installation of a horizontal heat pump,
- Horizontal collector. For its location, you need to dig the soil over an area to a depth of one and a half meters. The do-it-yourself alternative energy obtained in this way is available for almost every private home. Experience shows that this scheme is the most effective,
- Water collector. It is relevant if there is a river or lake near the house. The pipeline must be laid at a depth below the freezing depth. Otherwise, you will have to install the system every year. This method of generating energy is considered the cheapest.
- Ground water collector. Obtaining alternative electricity in this way is possible only with the help of specialists. The pipe laying process requires compliance with stringent requirements. A feature of the installation is that after passing through the whole scheme, the water that has given up its heat returns to the ground. Subsequently, it is heated with the help of soil and becomes suitable for heating the room and generating electricity.
The advantages of heat pumps
Alternative sources of energy for the home with their own hands, the sources of which are the bowels of the earth, have many advantages. From the first days of using heat pumps, you will be convinced that such technologies have high efficiency. Since the temperature of the soil in the wells throughout the year always remains unchanged, the source can be considered eternal. The plants do not emit noise and provide the premises with thermal energy in the required volumes. Manufacturers of soil probes say that using such equipment, you can get electricity yourself for a hundred years.
There are several other important characteristics that play in favor of heat pumps:
- lack of need for natural gas,
- lack of harm to the environment,
- high level of fire safety,
- the need for a small amount of territory.
Now you know how to generate electricity at home. Having all the necessary information, you can choose the most suitable method.