GAS CLEANING (a. Gas cleaning, n. Gasreinigung, f. Epuration du gaz, and. Limpieza de gas, purificacion de gas) - the extraction of components that complicate the use of gas as fuel and raw materials or pollute the environment. These components include H2S, CO2SO2, mercaptans, COS, CS2 and others. By world standards, the content of N2S in the used natural gas up to 5.7 mg / m 3 is allowed, total sulfur up to 50 mg / m 3, CO2 up to 3-5% by volume, in gases released into the atmosphere, the total content of harmful impurities is allowed up to 500 ppm (parts per million). These components are valuable chemical raw materials (see. Integrated processing).
The gas purification process includes absorption (adsorption) and desorption. Absorption methods for gas purification (see Absorption gas purification) are based on the absorption of impurity components by solvents with the formation of easily decomposable chemical compounds (chemical absorption) or physical solutions (physical absorption). Adsorption methods (see Adsorption gas purification) are based on the absorption of impurity components by the surface of solids - adsorbents. In the process of desorption, absorbed components are released and the absorption capacity of the sorbents is restored. N2S and CO2 in absorption processes, they are absorbed simultaneously, with their content in the source gas of up to about 4%, chemical absorbers (amines, solutions of alkali metal salts and amino acids) are used, with contents above 4-5%, physical solvents (chilled methanol, N-methylpyrrolidone, propylene carbonate, polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether, a mixture of sulfolane and diisopropanolamine, tributyl phosphate), mercaptans are extracted with hydrocarbon liquids at low temperatures and adsorption on zeolites, COS and CS2 - physical solvents. The advantage of chemical solvents is the fine purification of gases, the disadvantages are high operating costs with a high content of impurity components and the formation of non-regenerable compounds with some of them (for example, monoethanolamine with COS and CS2).
Advantages of physical solvents: simultaneous extraction of all impurity components, low operating costs when cleaning gases from large quantities of various impurities, disadvantages: solubility of hydrocarbon components and sometimes insufficient depth of extraction of individual components. Gas purification also includes the processing of desorption products into commercial products. When cleaning gases from small amounts of N2S use direct conversion processes, with H2S in the process of absorption is absorbed by the oxygen carrier in an alkaline solution, and in the process of desorption it is oxidized by atmospheric oxygen to elemental sulfur, sometimes the gas to be purified is brought into contact with a 90-95% aqueous solution of di- or triethylene glycol saturated with SO2with which upon absorption of H2S reacts to form S, while water acts as a catalyst. It is advisable to use direct conversion processes at an output of S up to 10-15 tons per day; at high yields, they become uneconomical. When small amounts of various sulfur components are contained in gases emitted into the atmosphere, hydrogenation processes are used (reactions with H2), as a result of which all impurities turn into H2S, purification from which is most developed.
The need for gas cleaning
The need for gas cleaning. There are two main reasons why there is a need for gas purification: economic benefits and environmental protection in the broad sense of the word. Thus, profit can be made by using blast furnace gases to produce heat and electric energy, provided that dusty impurities are removed from the gases for the most complete combustion. On the other hand, sulfur (IV) oxide can be extracted from the exhaust gases and reduced to sulfur in an economically viable way, or, for example, germanium can be extracted from the fly ash of certain coals.
The protection of workers employed in industry and the general public from the effects of harmful impurities, as well as the preservation of a clean environment, determines the need for gas cleaning. For example, flue gases containing toxic impurities such as arsenic or lead pose a serious danger to the health of workers and the surrounding population. Other exhaust gases containing, for example, fluoride compounds or sulfur dioxide (IV), although they do not pose a direct danger to human health at a given concentration, can destroy vegetation and gradually destroy the structures surrounding us, making life difficult in an industrial city.
The need for gas purification in industry is determined mainly by economic factors: for example, in some cases, a gas treatment plant reduces the efficiency of the plant as a whole or requires a radical reconstruction, while another installation, although not so efficient, will allow production to continue. If the trapped material is the main product of the process, for example, solid particles during the spray drying process, the choice of the optimal type of collector will depend on the economic ratio between the cost of the lost product and the cost of a highly efficient collector. Since in practice the need for gas purification is carried out in order to prevent atmospheric pollution, the nature of such pollution will be examined here.
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Other biogas enrichment methods
The physical washing method is Selexol technology, which resembles rinsing with water under pressure, only a special washing solution, Genosorb, is used instead. Contact with biogas is made in this case at a pressure of the order of seven atmospheres, moreover, water is also removed from the biogas along with carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. However, based on the costs, it is more advantageous to clean biogas that has been drained and remove hydrogen sulfide in this way. Genosorb is regenerated by a gradual decrease in pressure and flushing with atmospheric air. The methane concentration in this case reaches 96%, and losses can be up to one percent. Relatively new developments in this direction include the membrane biogas enrichment technology, which is still under development. It is based on the separation of a mixture of gases, resulting from the different diffusion rates of their molecules, determined by their size. Methane molecules having a lower molecular weight and size than molecules of carbon dioxide and more complex hydrocarbons diffuse at a faster rate. Therefore, this process is governed by the types of membranes and their surfaces, as well as the flow rate of the shared biogas and the number of separation steps it passes. In this case, it must be pre-desulfurized and dried. The proportion of methane in the treated biogas with this technology in existing plants reaches 96%. Membrane separation does not require the use of chemicals, but it requires large energy costs and methane losses are quite large. Another new development is the cryogenic separation of biogas. This method of separating carbon dioxide from methane consists in liquefying the gas to form liquid carbon dioxide, followed by its separation at low temperatures by freezing. The biogas processed using this technique must be dried and desulfurized. The share of methane in this method is about 99%, and the loss is not more than a tenth of a percent, which indicates the prospects for the development of this biogas enrichment technology.
The stage of biogas preparation for supplying natural gas to the network includes purification from oxygen, which can be removed using catalytic methods using palladium-platinum catalysts, or by chemical sorption on copper contacts. Traces of residual gases may also be present in biogas, which include:
They are usually removed at the stages of desulfurization, drying and enrichment of biogas.
Medical methods for eliminating gas in the intestines
Flatulence is a common occurrence. Usually it occurs a few hours after eating food. People who are often confronted with this problem are interested in how to remove gas from the abdomen.
The modern method of treatment includes drug therapy. Currently, pharmacological companies offer drugs that effectively cope with the disease. They are divided into several types.
If a person does not know how to remove gases from the intestines, then Activated Carbon can be taken. This is one of the sorbent preparations. Their effect is aimed at absorbing oxygen bubbles and toxic components.
It is very often impossible to take medications, since together with harmful bacteria they also remove beneficial ones. If there is no black coal at hand, then you can use Smecta, Enterosgel, White coal. The dosage is prescribed in the instructions based on age and weight.
If you need to quickly remove gas bubbles, then you can use funds from the antifoam group. Their effect is aimed at reducing gas production due to the presence in the composition of the active substances in the form of dimethicone and simethicone.
The following drugs belong to this group.
- Espumisan. A popular remedy, which is available in the form of drops and tablets. It is intended for infants, infants, older children and adults. Also removes pain, colic and heaviness in the stomach.
- SubSimplex. An excellent tool to eliminate increased gas formation. The effect of the drug is aimed at the decay of the bubbles. Thus, the feeling of fullness and swelling is reduced. Available in the form of drops and is allowed for babies from birth.
- Bobotik. Means for babies. It is not absorbed into the bloodstream, does not harm internal organs, is safe. Prevents processes of decay and fermentation.
These funds do not affect the state of microflora, do not remove beneficial bacteria.
You can remove gaziki using prokinetics. Such drugs stimulate the withdrawal of gaziki by activating the motor activity of the intestinal canal.
The most popular include the following.
- Motilium. Eliminates dyspeptic symptoms in the form of nausea, vomiting, belching, bloating,
- Domperidrn. It copes with the symptoms of flatulence. But before use, it is worth familiarizing yourself with the instructions, since the drug has many side effects. It is forbidden to use for kidney and liver disease,
- Passasix. The effect of the drug is aimed at stimulating the withdrawal of gases. It is well tolerated by patients, as it has a minimum of side effects.
Available in tablet form.
Such drugs normalize the digestive processes. Enzymes are included in their composition. This group of drugs includes Mezim, Pancreatin, Creon, Festal. Some of them are inexpensive and affordable for anyone. But they have a number of contraindications. For example, they are forbidden to take with acute pancreatitis.
The duration of treatment is from one to three months. Eliminate the feeling of heaviness, fullness, pain in the stomach.
Folk remedies for eliminating gas in the stomach
If the question arose, how to remove gases from the abdomen, then you can use alternative methods of treatment. They have several advantages: they are safe, do not cause allergic reactions, have anti-inflammatory and soothing effects.
There are several effective ways.
- The use of dill water. It can be taken by adults and pregnant women, as well as given to babies from birth. For cooking, take a spoonful of dried dill, pour in boiled water in the amount of 300 milliliters. It is infused for about 2-3 hours. It is better to take the finished product before meals.
- Herbal application. To prepare the drink, chamomile, caraway seeds and valerian roots are taken in equal proportions. The mixture is poured with a mug of water and brought to a boil. It is infused for 15-20 minutes, and then filtered. You need to take the medicine up to three times a day.
- The use of herbal collection No. 2. To prepare it, mint leaves, fennel fruits, anise seeds and caraway seeds are taken in equal proportions. Pour boiling water over a mug. The broth is infused for about an hour. Before use, strain.
- Dandelion roots have a good effect. A spoon of dried grass is taken, chopped and poured with a glass of cool water. Better to cook for the night. After 8-10 hours, the drink is filtered and taken on an empty stomach.
- The exception is only that the patient may show increased susceptibility to the components of the drug. Decoctions are usually taken within a month. Then take a break.
There are several recommendations.
- Use only fresh broths.
- A drink can be stored no more than a day in a cool place. Before taking should be warmed up.
- It is better to buy herbs in a pharmacy. With self-assembly, the place of collection should be taken into account. There is a chance of collecting poisonous herbs, which will lead to poisoning.
If alternative methods of treatment do not help cope with bloating, it is better to seek the help of a doctor.
If the question arises, how to quickly remove gases from the intestines, you need to think about proper nutrition. This reason is the most common among the rest.
First of all, products that cause increased gas formation are excluded from the menu. The list includes:
- Rye bread,
- confectionery and flour products,
- pastries, cakes, creams, chocolate,
- some fruit crops in the form of lemon, bananas, oranges, pomegranates,
- some vegetable crops in the form of different types of cabbage, tomatoes, beans and peas,
- dried fruits in the form of raisins and prunes,
- soda, alcohol, juices,
- fatty meats and fish,
- spices, spices.
To remove gases from the intestines, you must adhere to some recommendations.
- Increase fluid intake. A glass of clean water should be taken on an empty stomach before each meal.
- The emphasis should be on liquid dishes. Soups, broths, compotes, teas, herbal decoctions, jelly should be present in the diet.
- Eat as often as possible, but a little bit. Serving size should not exceed 200 grams. But at the same time, the number of receptions can reach up to 6 times a day. The last appointment is at 18:00.
- At night, you should eat a glass of fermented milk product: kefir, natural yogurt without additives, fermented baked milk, yogurt.
In addition, there are rules of conduct at the table.
- Do not eat on the go. It is imperative to set aside time for breakfast, lunch and dinner.
- Chew food at least 10 times. Even if kefir, soup or semolina is used. Digestive processes begin precisely with the oral cavity. Saliva helps in breaking down foods. At the same time, during chewing, the stomach begins to produce hydrochloric acid for further digestion.
- You can’t talk while eating. This can cause air to enter, resulting in burping and gas formation.
- Do not overeat. If the digestive canal is full, he will not do his job well. Such a process will lead to fermentation, decay and reproduction of harmful bacteria.
- Drinking food with sweet drinks is prohibited. The liquid dilutes the gastric juice, which leads to a decrease in the concentration of enzymes. Sugar is the launch of fermentation processes.
By observing the rules, excessive accumulation of gases can be avoided.
Physical activity for bowel cleansing
You can kick out gas bubbles with exercise. To all this, they help strengthen muscle structures in the peritoneum. There are several effective exercises.
- If the patient has contraindications, then you can simply lie down on your back, bend your knees and strain your abs. Repeat the exercise 10-15 times in several sets.
- Lie on your back, bend your legs at the knee joints. Gently press the palms on the area of the intestinal tract. Make such movements within one minute. To complete the procedure, stroke.
- Keep the starting position. Wrap your arms around your bent legs. Подтяните бедра к туловищу насколько это возможно. Находитесь в таком состоянии не меньше одной минуты.
- Делайте упражнение «Велосипед». Для этого примите положение лежа на спине. Приподнимите ноги и согните их в коленных суставах. Ладони расположите за затылком. Совершайте ногами движениями, имитируя езду на велосипеде.
If gas removal is required for overweight people, then you need not only to do regular exercises, but to do some kind of sport. At the same time, you should adhere to a strict diet to burn excess fat in the subcutaneous layer.
Recommendations for eliminating gas from the intestines
It is much more difficult to release gases than to launch them into the intestines. To prevent the development of such a problem, it is necessary to adhere to preventive recommendations.
- Avoid stressful situations. Exciting moments push people to overeat. This process adversely affects the further work of the stomach and intestines. You can relieve unnecessary stress by doing any job, doing in the gym, relaxing in the circle of loved ones and people, meditating and walking through the fresh air.
- Get rid of addictions in the form of smoking. Some people have this rule - to smoke and drink a coffee drink at the same time. Nicotine penetrates the stomach, which slows down its work. To all this, gas bubbles mix with the liquid and block the lumen in the intestine.
- If antibiotics were prescribed to the patient, then at the same time it is necessary to take bifidobacteria. This will help to avoid the development of dysbiosis.
- All expose food to heat treatment. Baked fruits and stewed vegetables are better digested by the body. And this does not prevent him from receiving useful trace elements.
- If bloating occurs in babies up to a year, then learn how to massage. As a supplement, a warm heating pad or diaper is applied to the tummy. Repeat manipulations should be up to two to three times a day.
If flatulence occurs every time after eating, even if all the rules are followed, then the cause may be a serious illness or parasite. Then you need to urgently consult a doctor, undergo a thorough examination and a course of drug therapy.